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Clarifying the Trade-Offs of Risk-Stratified Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Cost-Effectiveness Study

We used a genomic test of prostate cancer risk to stratify men into three classes of prostate cancer risk. Then, we used cost-effectiveness analysis to determine when risk-stratified screening policies were preferable to universal policies. We also provided guidance to developers of future prostate cancer risk biomarkers on how to optimize the stratification of risk.

Economic Evaluation of Urine-Based or Magnetic Resonance Imaging Reflex Tests in Men With Intermediate Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels in the United States

This study shows that certain urinary biomarkers have greater economic value as reflex tests than MRI or all-or-nothing rules for guiding biopsy decisions in among men with intermediate prostate cancer antigen levels (4-10 ng/mL), and the results are insensitive to ongoing changes in prostate cancer treatment. Our findings support using urine-based reflex tests to guide biopsy decisions.

Differences in the selection of health state utility values by sponsorship in published cost-effectiveness analyses

There are often multiple utility weights available for a given health state, which creates the opportunity for researchers to select utility weights that bias the results of the cost-effectiveness analysis towards their product. We use a regression-based approach to utility weights reported in Tufts Medical Center's Cost-Effectiveness Registry to determine whether industry-sponsored cost-effectiveness analyses use systematically different utility weights compared to non-industry-sponsored studies.

Artificial intelligence in breast cancer screening: primary care provider preferences

Primary care providers play an essential role in communicating the benefits and risks of breast cancer screening to women. As such, they may play an important role in the adoption of AI-based mammography interpretation. We quantitatively evaluated their preferences using a discrete choice experiment.

Inferring antenatal care visit timing in low- and middle-income countries: Methods to inform potential maternal vaccine coverage

The lack of data on the timing of antenatal care visits in low- and middle-income countries makes it difficult to model interventions delivered through this platform. Here, we use publicly available data to estimate the timing of antenatal care visits by gestational age in a variety of countries.

Provider preferences for resolving uncertainty and avoiding harms in precision medicine: a discrete choice experiment

Measuring medication persistance of psoriasis drugs is difficult, because they have very different dosing intervals and most have an induction period with different dosing from the maintenance period. We show how the method of calculation contributes to the variation in persistence estimates that previous literature has shown.

Medication persistence of targeted immunomodulators for plaque psoriasis: A retrospective analysis using a U.S. claims database

Measuring medication persistance of psoriasis drugs is difficult, because they have very different dosing intervals and most have an induction period with different dosing from the maintenance period. We show how the method of calculation contributes to the variation in persistence estimates that previous literature has shown.

Forecasting Demand for the Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine in Low- and Middle-income Countries

Background The World Health Organization (WHO) released a position paper in March 2018 calling for integration of a novel typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) into routine immunization along with catch-up campaigns for children up to age 15. Gavi, the …

Cost-Effectiveness of Targeted Pharmacotherapy for Moderate to Severe Plaque Psoriasis

Background Newer classes of targeted drugs for moderate to severe plaque psoriasis are more effective and more expensive than older classes, posing a difficult and potentially costly decision about whether to use them as initial targeted treatments. …

Forecasting demand for maternal influenza immunization in low- and lower-middle-income countries

Immunization of pregnant women against seasonal influenza remains limited in low- and lower-middle-income countries despite being recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The WHO/PATH Maternal Influenza Immunization Project was created to …